Insulin Resistance

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MUTHUMARIAPPAN ...
MUTHUMARIAPPAN Murugan's picture
Insulin Resistance

Hi all,

Can anyone explain me, Is there any correlation between Essential Amino acids and Insulin resistance? and How do Essential amino acids play a role in correction of Insulin resistance?

Chin Fen Teo
Chin Fen Teo's picture
 You can check out a review

 You can check out a review paper by Marshall et al in 1991 as follow:

Marshall S, Garvey WT & Traxinger RR. (1991) New insights into the metabolic regulation of insulin action and insulin resistance: Role of glucose and amino acids. FASEB J. 5, 3031-6.

Briefly, glutamine together with chronic high glucose and insulin treatments (not by itself) lead to insulin resistance in adipocytes. (If you are interested, you can check out the primary research article cited in that review by the same group).

And the reason all three components are needed to cause insulin resistance is because they feed into a minor glucose metabolic pathway called hexosamine biosythesis pathway. There are quite many references/reviews on this aspect as it is an active field of diabetes (type 2) research nowsaday.

varsha
varsha's picture
Hi Muthuonco,

Hi Muthuonco,
This is very interesting. I  do not work in the field but would be interested in the topic. Would you mind contributing your opinion/views/facts and references on correlation between essential amino acids and insulin resistance.

MUTHUMARIAPPAN ...
MUTHUMARIAPPAN Murugan's picture
Dear Varsha,

Dear Varsha,

I have minimum nuber of references only... If you have any idea do share with me..

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The BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine and valine) stimulate the effect of insulin in three different manners. The first manner through which the metabolic pathway is affected is the increased production of insulin. It has been demonstrated that BCAA supplementation in accordance with carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise increases insulin output by 221%, which is much greater than the 66% supplementation without leucine. Leucine is the most readily oxidized BCAA and therefore the most effective at causing insulin secretion from the pancreas, and stimulating the metabolic pathway. This is important because insulin is the initiating factor that begins the signalling cascade. The second effect is outlined with the red arrows clearly indicating a phosphorylation cascade beginning with the activation of the Ras Rhed and ending with rpS6. The importance of rpS6 is that it induces mRNA translation. This translation leads to the production of proteins. The other side of the pathway indicated by the blue arrow induces the action of eIF4G. This initiation factor causes the binding of mRNA within the ribosome thus providing the initial products needed for translation. This leads down to the final product via protein binding and phosphorylation, resulting in eIF4E which induces mRNA translation which in turn leads to chain elongation, and termination, resulting in net protein growth.
 

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branched-chain_amino_acids
 

Chin Fen Teo
Chin Fen Teo's picture
 Muthonco,

 Muthonco,

Having work on related signaling pathways, I would like to remind you that the effect of leucine on mTOR and insulin resistance is somewhat tissue/cell type specific. I recommend you another review article that discusses what people have learned on that aspect so far.

Hinault C et al. 2006 Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 17: 374-378.

In my mind, there is still a gap in the field to link the cross-talk between different pathways, thus, it is really premature to justify whether administration of essential amino acid (leucine per se) can really treat type 2 diabetes.

Hope you find the article helpful.