Tolerance of cholera toxin - insulin b chain

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hamadh83
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Tolerance of cholera toxin - insulin b chain

CTB-insulin B peptide is used to increase tolerance of insulin by oral and nasal route.

How does it increase the tolerance of insulin?  Can someone tell me more info about that method?

omid
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hamadh83 wrote: how hear abot

hamadh83 wrote:

how hear abot CTB-insulin B peptide it is used to increase tolerance of insulin by oral and nasal route
How it increase the tolerance of insulin
Tell me more info. about that methode

Very interesting question and concept to study. The combination of the recombinant Cholera toxin B and insulin taken orally or by nasal route inceases tolerance to insulin due to an increase of regulatory CD4 T cells.The Cholera Toxin B Subunit is a Mucosal Adjuvant for Oral Tolerance Induction in Type 1 Diabetes. May be this paper will have some answers:

Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Volume 57 Page 432 - May 2003
doi:10.1046/j.1365-3083.2003.01248.x
Volume 57 Issue 5

S. Bregenholt,* M. Wang,* T. Wolfe, A. Hughes, L. Brentzen,* T. Dyrberg,§ M. G. von Herrath & J. S. Petersen*,

Abstract

When conjugated to various proteins, the nontoxic B-chain of cholera toxin (CTB) significantly increases the ability of these proteins to induce immunological tolerance after oral administration. Here, we investigated if a nonconjugated form of CTB enhances the induction of immune tolerance after oral insulin administration. Induction of immunological tolerance was studied after oral administration of insulin preparations in three mouse models; an insulin/ovalbumin coimmunization model, a model of virus-induced diabetes in transgenic RIP-LCMV-NP mice and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice serving as a model of spontaneous diabetes. In the immunization model, we demonstrate that mixing with CTB increases the tolerogenic potential of insulin, approximately 10 fold. Titration of the CTB concentration in this system revealed that an insulin : CTB ratio of 100 : 1 was optimal for the induction of bystander suppression. Further studies revealed that this insulin : CTB ratio also was optimal for the prevention of diabetes in a virus-induced, transgenic diabetes model. In addition, the administration of this optimal insulinCTB preparation significantly prevented the onset of diabetes in old NOD mice with established islet infiltration. The data presented here demonstrate that CTB, even in its unconjugated form, functions as a mucosal adjuvant, increasing the specific tolerogenic effect of oral insulin.

or check these out:

http://jimmunol.org/cgi/content/full/168/4/1730

http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/48/11/2150