hi! i am a student of agricultural university.i am preparing an assignment on prevalance of anemia .kindly help me out by giving material on this topic.
Here is the world health organization page on Anemia
here is the transcript
Anaemia is common throughout the world. Its main cause, iron deficiency, is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. Several infections related to hygiene, sanitation, safe water and water management are significant contributors to anaemia in addition to iron deficiency. These include malaria, schistosomiasis and hookworm.
The disease and how it affects people
The disease and how it affects people
Anaemia is a condition that occurs when the red blood cells do not carry enough oxygen to the tissues of the body. Anaemia affects all population groups. However the most susceptible groups are pregnant women and young children. In the milder form, anaemia is “silent”, without symptoms. In the more severe form, anaemia is associated with fatigue, weakness, dizziness and drowsiness. The signs include loss of normal colour in the skin (in fair skinned people) and also in the lips, tongue nail beds and the blood vessels in the white of the eye. Without treatment, anaemia can worsen and become an underlying cause of chronic ill health, such as impaired fetal development during pregnancy, delayed cognitive development and increased risk of infection in young children, and reduced physical capacity in all people. Low birth weight infants, young children and women of childbearing age are particularly at risk of anaemia. Women of childbearing age need to absorb 2-3 times the amount of iron required by men or older women.
The main causes of anaemia are nutritional and infectious. They usually coexist in the same individual and make anaemia worst.
Among the nutrition factors contributing to anaemia, the most common one is iron deficiency. It is due to a diet that is monotonous, but rich in substances (phytates) inhibiting iron absorption so that dietary iron cannot be utilised by the body. Iron deficiency may also be aggravated by poor nutritional status, especially when it is associated with deficiencies in folic acid, vitamin A or B12, as is often the case in populations living in developing countries
With regard to infections, malaria is another major cause of anaemia : it affects 300-500 million people, and in endemic areas it may be the primary cause of half of all severe anaemia cases (WHO, 2000). Hookworm infection and in some places schistosomiasis also contribute to anaemia. Approximately 44 million pregnant women have hookworm infections and 20 million people are severely infected with schistosomiasis. Anaemia can also be due to excessive blood loss, such as gastrointestinal infections associated with diarrhoea. The most important water-related causes of anaemia are malnutrition and water-borne or water-related infections.
Anaemia is a common problem throughout the world and iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world. It affects mainly the poorest segment of the population, particularly where malnutrition is predominant and the population exposed to a high risk of water-related infection.
Scope of the problem
Nine out of ten anaemia sufferers live in developing countries, about 2 billion people suffer from anaemia and an even larger number of people present iron deficiency (WHO, 2000). Anaemia may contribute to up to 20% of maternal deaths.
Full discussion of strategies towards anaemia prevention are beyond the scope of this Fact Sheet. Because anaemia is the result of multiple factors, the identification of these factors and of the causes and type of anaemia is important. Important actions include addressing underlying causes correcting iron deficiency, treatment of underlying disease processes (in particular nutritional deficiencies - Folic acid, Vitamin A and B12).
In children, promoting breastfeeding and proper complementary foods are important in controlling anaemia.
Improving hygiene, sanitation and water supply; and improving water resource management to contribute to control of schistosomiasis and malaria where they occur are important contributory measures in prevention of anaemia.
WHO. Turning the tide of malnutrition: responding to the challenge of the 21st century. Geneva: WHO, 2000 (WHO/NHD.007)
Prepared for World Water Day 2001. Reviewed by staff and experts in the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) and the Water, Sanitation and Health Unit (WSH), World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
Arch Intern Med. 1996 May 27;156(10):1097-100.
Prevalence of undiagnosed pernicious anemia in the elderly.
Department of Medicine, University of Southern California (USC) School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA.
BACKGROUND: Existing information about the prevalence of pernicious anemia is largely based on older surveys that favored florid manifestations, tended to be retrospective analyses of previously diagnosed disease, and usually studied homogeneous European populations. The lack of current data in the United States has, among other things, hampered discussions of the proposal to increase folate intake by the general population. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed and untreated pernicious anemia among the elderly. METHODS: A prospective survey of cobalamin levels and anti-intrinsic factor antibody was done in the elderly. Blood testing was done in 729 people aged 60 years or older and follow-up assessment with the Schilling test and other tests was offered when results were abnormal. RESULTS: Seventeen subjects were found to have pernicious anemia, usually with only minimal clinical manifestations of cobalamin deficiency. Although cobalamin deficiency had been suspected by the physicians of three subjects, they had been treated inadequately and still had evidence of deficiency. Excluding these three partially treated subjects from the analysis, 1.9% of the survey population had unrecognized and untreated pernicious anemia. The prevalence was 2.7% in women and 1.4% in men; 4.3% of the black women and 4.0% of the white women had pernicious anemia. CONCLUSIONS: Undiagnosed pernicious anemia is a common finding in the elderly, especially among black and white women. If these findings can be extrapolated, almost 800000 elderly people in the United States have undiagnosed and untreated pernicious anemia, and, thus, would be at possible risk for masked cobalamin deficiency if exposed to large amounts of folate. This number does not include those elderly with cobalamin deficiency caused by other disorders or the still unknown number of younger people with unrecognized pernicious anemia and other causes of deficiency.
PMID: 8638997 (click here to link to pubmed)
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2007) 61, 865–869; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602613; published online 24 January 2007
Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives
S Muthayya1, P Thankachan1, M B Zimmermann2, M Andersson2, A Eilander3, D Misquith4, R F Hurrell2 and A V Kurpad1
1. 1Division of Nutrition, St John's Research Institute, St John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India
2. 2Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
3. 3Unilever Food and Health Research Institute, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands
4. 4Department of Community Health, St John's Medical College, St John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India
Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the prevalence of anemia in school children who are beneficiaries of this program.
Bangalore district, South India.
A total of 2030 boys and girls, aged 5–15 years, attending schools in the Bangalore district.
School-based, twice yearly intervention: deworming (albendazole 400 mg, single oral dose) and vitamin A supplementation (200 000 IU, single oral dose).
Main outcome measures:
Anemia prevalence based on measure of blood hemoglobin (Hb).
Mean age and blood Hb concentration of all children were 9.5plusminus2.6 years and 12.6plusminus1.1 g/dl (range 5.6–16.7), respectively. The overall anemia prevalence in this group was 13.6%. Anemia prevalence was lower in boys than girls (12.0%; n=1037 vs 15.3%; n=993 respectively, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in anemia prevalence between children in urban and rural locations (14.6 and 12.3%, respectively).
The current low anemia prevalence in Bangalore could be due to the impact of school-based intervention programs that have been in place since 2003. The beneficial interactions of deworming and vitamin A supplementation could have widespread implications for current preventive public health initiatives. There is now need for the development of clear policy guidelines based on these simple and integrated interventions.
Prevalence and outcomes of anemia in cancer: A systematic review of the literature
Anemia is common in patients with cancer. This systematic literature review of reports published in 1966 through February 2003 identified the prevalence of anemia in specific cancers and assessed the impact of anemia on survival and quality of life (QOL). Studies about chemotherapy-induced anemia were excluded. Anemia prevalence varied widely; most studies found that between 30% and 90% of patients with cancer had anemia. Prevalence was affected strongly by the definition of anemia: 7% of patients with Hodgkin disease had anemia when the condition was defined as a hemoglobin level <90.0 g/L; as many as 86% of patients had anemia when it was defined as a hemoglobin value <110.0 g/L. Prevalence varied by cancer type and disease stage: 40% of patients with early-stage colon tumors and nearly 80% of patients with advanced disease had anemia. Patients with anemia had poorer survival and local tumor control than did their nonanemic counterparts in 15 of 18 studies. In 8 of 12 studies, patients without anemia (most treated with epoetin) needed fewer transfusions. QOL was positively correlated with hemoglobin levels in 15 of 16 studies. There was no significant difference in treatment toxicity between patients with and without anemia. Tumor hypoxia, which has been associated with resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, may stimulate angiogenesis, leading to poor local control of tumors and increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment of anemia may have a significant impact on patient survival and QOL. However, a standard definition of anemia is needed, as is research about the effect of anemia on cancer progression.
Revue / Journal Title
The American journal of medicine ISSN 0002-9343 CODEN AJMEAZ
Source / Source
2004, vol. 116, SUP7A (71 p.) (74 ref.), pp. 11S-26S
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 58(5), 1998, pp. 606-611
Prevalence of and risk factors for anemia in young children in southern Cameroon
M Cornet, JY Le Hesran, N Fievet, M Cot, P Personne, R Gounoue, M Beyeme, and P Deloron
Anemia during childhood remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. To determine the prevalence of and the main risk factors for anemia in young children, we conducted a longitudinal survey in Ebolowa in southern Cameroon. Children were enrolled in two cohorts and followed during a three-year period: the first cohort was composed of 122 children from 0 to 36 months of age and the second cohort was composed of 84 children from 24 to 60 months of age. The two cohorts were followed weekly for symptomatic malaria, monthly for both symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria, and every six months for hematologic data; the children were grouped into six-month age groups. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] level < 11 g/dl) was the highest in the six-month-old age group (47%) and the age-related evolution clearly showed a decrease in the prevalence from three years of age. Thus, 42% of the children less than three years of age were anemic, while 21% of the children between three and five years of age were anemic. The lowest mean +/- SD Hb content (10.7 +/- 2.1 g/dl) was observed in the six-month-old children and a regular improvement in the Hb level occurred from six months to three years of age. A stabilization was observed at a level of approximately 12 g/dl. At any age, there was no difference in mean Hb levels between children with AS and AA Hb genotypes. Hookworm infection was diagnosed in two children in the study population. Results of a multivariate analysis showed that placental malaria infection was the strongest risk factor for anemia in the six-month-old children (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-12.3) and was independent of the frequency of parasitemia, parasitemia at the time of Hb measurement, or microcytosis. In the one-year-old age group, microcytosis was a significant factor related to anemia (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1-7.8) pointing out the role of iron deficiency at this age. Parasitemia at the time of Hb measurement was significantly associated with anemia in all age groups (except in 54- and 60-month-old groups). Strategies to decrease the prevalence of anemia in young children in southern Cameroon should include chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women, prevention of acquired malaria infection in both pregnancy and infancy, and prevention of nutritional iron deficiency
World diagnosis.com data
Prevalance of Anemia:
3.5 million (NHLBI)
approx 1 in 77 or 1.29% or 3.5 million people in USA [about data]
TopPrevalance of types of Anemia:
For details see prevalence of types of Anemia analysis; summary of available prevalence data:
* Sickle Cell Anemia: estimated 1 per 1,000 Hispanic Americans are affected by sickle cell disease in the US, Genetics Home Reference website
* Pernicious anemia: 399,455 people in the USA 1996 1
* thalassemia: 1,000 people with Cooley's anemia (NHLBI)
TopIncidence of types of Anemia:
For details see incidence of types of Anemia analysis; summary of available incidence by type data:
* Iron deficiency anemia: 187,979 annual cases in Victoria 1996 (DHS-VIC); 20% women of childbearing age; 2% adult men (NWHIC)
* Sickle Cell Anemia: 1 per 500 African American births; 1 per 1,000-1,400 Hispanic-American births
* Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: 1 per 80,000 cases to 2.6 per 100,000 (as reported in Rose and Mackay 19982)
TopPrevalence/Incidence of Anemia: Online Medical Books
Aplastic anemias: Causes and incidence
(Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition))
Aplastic anemias usually develop when damaged or destroyed stem cells inhibit red blood cell (RBC) production. Less commonly, they develop when damaged bone marrow microvasculature creates an unfavorable environment for cell growth and maturation. About one-half of such anemias result from drugs (antibiotics and anticonvulsants), toxic agents (such as benzene and chloramphenicol), or radiation. The rest may result from immunologic factors (unconfirmed), severe disease (especially hepatitis), or preleukemic and neoplastic infiltration of bone marrow.
Idiopathic anemias may be congenital. Two such forms of aplastic anemia have been identified: Congenital hypoplastic anemia (Blackfan-Diamond anemia) develops between ages 2 and 3 months; Fanconi’s syndrome, between birth and age 10. In Fanconi’s syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities are usually associated with multiple congenital anomalies, such as dwarfism, and hypoplasia of the kidneys and spleen. In the absence of a consistent familial or genetic history of aplastic anemia, researchers suspect that these congenital abnormalities result from an induced change in the fetus’development.
Incidence is 0.6 to 6.1 cases per 1 million people. There is no racial predilection.
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Thank you sir! for giving alot of information on the topic of anemia.